Wild Oats XI


Wild Oats XI
Wild Oats XI about to finish 2011 Sydney to Hobart.jpg

Wild Oats XI at the finishing line, 2011 Sydney-Hobart
Yacht Club: Royal Prince Alfred Yacht Club
Yacht Club Costa Smeralda
Hamilton Island Yacht Club
Nation:  Australia
Launched: December 2nd, 2005
Hull Type: Carbon/Nomex monohull
Class: canting keel IRC supermaxi
Sail Number(s): AUS10001
Designer(s): Reichel/Pugh
Builder: Mc Conaghy
Owner(s): Australia Robert Oatley
Skipper(s): Australia Mark Richards
Sailors: 16 to 29 crew
Displacement: 32t, amongst which 14t ballast
Length: 30.48 m (100.00 ft)
Beam: 5.1 m (16.73 ft)
Draft: 5.91 m (19.39 ft)
Sail Area: mainsail 382 m2 (4,112 sq ft)
jib 228 m2 (2,454 sq ft)
genoa 535 m2 (5,759 sq ft)
spinnaker 880 m2 (9,472 sq ft)

Wild Oats XI is a maxi yacht, most famous for being the race record holder and a seven times line honours winner of the “blue water classic” Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race. She is owned by Robert Oatley, and skippered by New South Wales yachtsmanMark Richards.

In her first season Wild Oats XI won the “treble” in the 2005 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race, winning on elapsed (line honours) and corrected time (handicap) as well as setting a new race record. In the 2007 raceWild Oats XI equaled the 59-year old record of Morna, by taking line honours in the race three times in a row. In the 2008 Sydney to Hobart Yacht RaceWild Oats XI broke the record, winning an unprecedented fourth consecutive line honours.[1] Wild Oats XI won the Sydney Hobart “treble” again in 2012, setting a new record of 1 day 18 hours 23 minutes 12 seconds.[2]


Wild Oats XI is a state-of-the-art IRC supermaxi yacht designed by Reichel/Pugh with a Carbon/Nomex composite hull. As a distinctively narrow sloop at 5.1 m (17 ft) beam with an ambitious offshore racing program, she originally featured “canting ballast twin foil” appendages enabling her to carry a large sail plan without compromising stability. Her underbody has been updated continuously and now features a bow centerboard, twin daggerboards amidships, a canting keel with vertical winglets on the torpedo bulb and a centreline single aft balanced spade rudder. In 2013 Wild Oats XI was equipped with a Dynamic Stability System (DSS) which is a retractable horizontal foil deployed on the leeward side of the boat.[3][4]


Wild Oats XI was built by McConaghy Boats.[5]

She was launched in December 2005 after a 9 month build and won her first Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race the same month.

Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race

Wild Oats XI made her Sydney to Hobart debut in 2005, and made an immediate impact on the race. Racing out of the heads, she led the whole way south to arrive in record time, breaking Alfa Romeo’s 2002 record. In so-doing, Wild Oats XI took line honours, won the Tattersall’s Cup (for overall winner adjusted on handicap), and becoming the first boat since Rani in the inaugural race in 1945 to do all three feats.

The following year, 2006, Wild Oats XI was equally dominant, taking line honours in 2 days, 8 hours, 52 minutes and 33 seconds. Arriving at 9:52pm, the yacht sailed into Sullivans Cove to rapturous applause by a large crowd gathered on the docks, who were appreciative of her achieving her ‘double’ despite being battered in heavy seas.[6]

The 2007 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race saw Wild Oats XI equal the 59-year old record of Morna, by winning a hat-trick of line honours titles. Wild Oats XI lined up for the start of the 2008 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race aiming to make history, and set a new record in her own right by becoming the only yacht to win four consecutive line honours titles, and did so, leading for the duration and completing the race in 1 day, 20 hours, 34 minutes 14 seconds. The 2008 race was not without difficulty for the crew though, as they picked up debris in Sydney Harbour which added excess drag, and also collided with a two-metre (6.5 foot) shark. The crew felt that the collision may have actually assisted them by dislodging the snag from their hull.[7]

The time set by Wild Oats XI in 2005 of 1 day, 18 hours, 40 minutes and 10 seconds, remained the race record until 2012 when it was bettered by 16 minutes.[8]

Wild Oats XI won line honours for the fifth time in the 2010 race, although the yacht’s crew faced a protest against their win which could have resulted in disqualification. Under sailing instruction 44.1(A), yachts are required to report their position by radio as they pass Green Cape, the entrance to Bass Strait. The rule was created following the disastrous 1998 race in which five boats sank and six sailors died.[9] As the yacht passed the cape, the crew realised that a blown fuse had rendered their high-frequency radio non-functional. They reported their position to race organisers via satellite phone, but race officials forwarded a complaint to an international jury, alleging that the crew had violated what race committee chairman Tim Cox called “one of the fundamental safety rules of the Sydney to Hobart yacht race”. The complaint was dismissed by the jury, and Wild Oats XI was awarded its fifth Sydney to Hobart line honours.[10]

In the 2011 race Wild Oats came second to Investec Loyal in a time of 2 days, 6 hours, 17 minutes and 26 seconds. They finished 2 minutes and 48 seconds behind.[11]

The 2012 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race saw the super maxi once again take line honours. The race time of one day, 18 hours and 23 minutes and 12 seconds broke the yacht’s own race record by 16 minutes and 58 seconds.[12] She also completed the treble of Line honours, Handicap and race record for the second time. She is still only the second boat to ever achieve this feat.[13]

The crew of 2005 winner Wild Oats.


  1. Jump up^ “Wild Oats XI claims Sydney-Hobart”. BBC News. 2008-12-27.
  2. Jump up^ http://rolexsydneyhobart.com/standings/
  3. Jump up^ François Chevalier & Jacques Taglang (2012-12-29). “Wild Oats XI”.
  4. Jump up^ Peter Blakeman (2012-12-17). “Wild Oats XI set to fly”.
  5. Jump up^ http://www.mcconaghyboats.com
  6. Jump up^ “Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race 2006 – Wild Oats XI Wins Line Honors”. Goaustralia.about.com. 2006-12-26. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
  7. Jump up^ “AFP: Wild Oats XI wins record fourth Sydney-Hobart yachting race”. Google.com. 2008-12-27. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
  8. Jump up^ “Wild Oats XI wins trifecta”. sail-world.com. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
  9. Jump up^ “Wild Oats XI facing protest”. ABC News. 2010-12-28.
  10. Jump up^ Wild Oats XI’s Sydney-to-Hobart victory hung on a $20 glitchThe Australian, 30 December 2010.
  11. Jump up^ “Wild Oats XI”. Official Site of the Rolex Sydney Hobart Yacht Race. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  12. Jump up^ “Wild Oats breaks Sydney-Hobart record”. ABC News. 2012-12-28.
  13. Jump up^ http://www.rolexsydneyhobart.com/standings/?raceId=99&categoryId=427&raceTime=

See also


Top 10 yachting races in the world


The yachting calendar counts a multitude of different events. After having witnessed the spectacle of the Americas Cup in February and the Louis Vuitton Trophy in March, focus is now turning to the Carribean and to the announcement of the final routing of the 2011/12 edition of the Volvo Ocean Race. We have attempted to list the top 10 yachting events in the world, taking into account issues like coverage, price money, quality of sailors and the history or future potential of an event. The list includes different formats of racing, such as single handed, around the world, ocean, coastal and fleetracing. Clearly the list and rankings are arbitrary but they should give an indication on which events deliver the best spectacle and value.

10. Olympic Games: the Olympics are the greatest sporting spectacle in the world and hence they should be part of our top 10. The Games have produced great sailing legends of the likes of Ben Ainslee, Ian Percy and Torben Grael to name a few. Hence the Games should be seen as a breeding ground for great sailors. Adding that the Games are also being watched by many millions of spectators around the world, we have got 2 major reasons why they should be on our list. Having said so, for television purposes the races are not as spectacular as some of the other events listed below, so work in progress we would say.

9. The World Match Racing Tour. Matchracing is the future and that’s why this event is in! It’s fun, fast and furious and hence should appeal to the younger crowd, important for the future growth of the sports. The World Match Racing Tour is attracting great talent with some of the best sailors in the world, such as Adam Minoprio, sailing legend Peter Gilmour and aces like Ian Williams and Ben Ainslee. Whereas the sport of sailing/yachting is still primarily dependent on sponsoring (particularly B2B), match racing should be very interesting for television as well as for hospitality purposes, which should give the sports a good platform to expand and to become more popular. Close to shore, short races, technical assistance such as virtual eye, on-board cameras and on-board interviews make the sport a lot more appealing to not only TV but also to different user groups. Although it is still lacking the tradition of some of the other events, the upward potential has made us decide to include it on our list.

8. Antigua Sailing Week. The Antigua Sailing Week is the biggest regatta in the Carribean and over the last two decades, Antigua Sailing Week has developed into one of the biggest events in the World Sailing calendar. It is a week of races where some of the biggest, fastest and most impressive sailing yachts in the world packed with Olympic, America’s Cup and round the world sailors are competing. Adding the variety in races, the big boats and the great party atmosphere and here we have an event that should not be lacking on anyone’s list!

7. Cowes week; the Cowes week is tradition all the way. Since 1826 it is one of the UK’s longest running and most successful sporting events. With 40 daily races for over 1,000 boats, 8,500 competitors (amateurs and professionals) and 100,000 spectators, it is without a doubt the largest sailing regatta of its kind in the world. With these numbers and this longstanding tradition, it belongs without a doubt within our top 10 of sailing race events in the world.

6 . Louis Vuitton Trophy. Maybe the Trophy has not proven its existence yet but following up on the success of the old Louis Vuitton Cup, it could be a blast! Putting together the exciting format of match racing, Americas Cup Class yachts, some of the best monohull sailors in the world (Barker, Cayard, Ainslie, Bruni) and a large crowd, makes for a great event. Adding large TV screens on site and side events in places such as Auckland, La Maddalena in Sardinia, Nice, Dubai and Hong Kong and you have a great experience that you do not want to miss. As stated before match racing has great potential for the future and that’s why we have included the trophy.

5. Fastnet race. Every sailor has heard of the Fastnet Race. It is one of the most famous offshore yachting races counting 608 nautical miles and taking place along the southern coasts of the UK and Ireland. Weather conditions always play a key role here; either big storms or relatively quiet weather determine a fast and furious or a tactical race. Similar to Sydney Hobart the Fastnet has had its share of casualties, underlining the fact the race is not without danger. With many big names participating and a long history, we rank the Fastnet at 5.

4. Sydney Hobart; say Christmas, Bass Strait, Tasmania, new year and spectacular racing and sailing fanatics filled with passion immediately will answer: Sydney-Hobart!! Without a doubt the Race is one of the most well-known iconic brand names in sailing. With the exception of the Volvo Ocean Race and the Americas Cup there is no yachting event attracting such huge media coverage. The “Bluewater Classic” has grown over the last 64 years to become one of the top three offshore yacht races in the world and now attracts maxi yachts from all around the globe. One of the reasons for the popularity of the race are the unpredictable and sometimes grueling conditions with high winds and difficult seas, sadly having also led to tragedies. Finally a top 10 list should not be complte without a race in one of the most crazed sailing nations, Australia.

3. Vendee Globe The Vendée Globe is a round the world single handed yacht race, sailed non-stop and without assistance. The race was founded by in 1989, and since 1992 has taken place every four years. As the only single-handed non-stop round-the-world race, one can say it is probably the most extreme form of ocean racing, being a serious test of individual endurance. Not surprisingly a significant portion of the entrants usually retire, but the one succeeding waits eternal fame and prey. Names as two times winner Desjoyeaux and Ellen Mc Arthur are just some of the wellknown heroes who succeeded in finishing the race, but there are many more……the Vendee (similar to the Volvo Ocean Race) now has leveraged its race to the on-line community with hundred’s of thousands of participants. This convergence no doubt will further add to the popularity of the Vendee!

2. Americas Cup. And then there is the Americas Cup! Of course the Americas Cup should be on the number one spot! However, we chose not to do so after the recent dismantling of the Cup. Although the actual race in Valencia was awesome to watch and a magnificent display of technology, the 33rdAmericas Cup sadly will go into the history books as the one mainly battled out in Court. In this perspective Larry Ellison is left with a big responsibility to regain the status that the Americas Cup should have; the world’s most prestigious sailing event. We trust Ellison and Coutts to be able to do this. Sailing is in their hearts and that’s why we believe the 34th version will be a blast! It is likely to be a multichallenger event, more international than ever before and great for spectators; there will be short furious races, cameras and microphones on-board, leading to an on-board experience and likely a new much more affordable to many boat type. It should excite young people and certainly when the Cup will take place in San Franciso, which will receive a huge economic boost as a result of the Cup. If Ellison and co. is able to do this, the Americas Cup will be the flagship event of sailing again that it once used to be. In that case the Cup will regain the number one spot on our list again.

1. Volvo Ocean Race. The Formula One of sailing! For sailors it is one of the ultimate sailing experiences, tough and asking enormous endurance capabilities. Subsequently it attracts together with the Americas Cup the best sailors of the world. Similar to Formula One team budgets have increased tremendously, limiting the number of campaigns. The new rules should improve this situation and make the race more accessible again. For spectators the race offers plenty. The boats are like race horses reaching enormous speeds in wild conditions at sea offering some good pictures and films taken by on-board media guys. Additionally (similar to the Vendee) the Race has converged with the on-line community that even assisted the Green Dragon in the last Volvo Ocean Race. The Race is attracting huge gatherings in the ports where the fleet makes a stop-over. In these ports a variety of side events combined with in-port races guarantee a great experience and a great boost to economic activity. The combination of the best sailors and boats in the world, endurance, round the world, experience, economic and media impact makes the Volvo Ocean Race the best package in our opinion and that is why it is the number one on our list!

No doubt the list offers plenty of room for debate. Feel free to comment, add or delete events and share your opinion!


5 Responses to “Top 10 yachting races in the world”

  1. Péter Füzi (HUN) Says:
    September 9th, 2012 at 11:49Jan,

    thanks for this article. It provides me, a yachtman in Central-Europe a revelation.
    I’ve participated unfortunately at none of these regattas, still the majority of them is regarded by me too as of main events of our nice sport. The rest serve to my better understanding on the scene.

    With my head I’d consider Kieler Woche and Hyeres Regatta as events of top significance within Europe with serious international attendance (In 1978, once in my life I could attend and participate Kieler Woche in 470). Our younger sailing colleagues refer to the Centomiglia Regatta as an other important event that could perhaps be a subject of such a ranking consideration.

    On the other hand it would be interesting to have some more insights about candidate events organized in other continents like Asia and America too. Maybe it reveals my personal bottlenecks :), in spite of my committed internet browsing I have had almost no information about them.

    Ultimately a last point: your ranking proposal can help local sailors, clubs and national associations to allocate the regattas they are participating in/responsible for on a more
    established, more objective scale.

    I made a translation into hungarian for the sake of our sailing community: you can find it athttp://www.vvsz.sport.hu/node/254.
    I hope and ask your kind support to this publication.

    Thank you, with kind regards,
    Peter Füzi
    yachtman, ex member of the Hungarian Olympic Team
    (C, 420, 470, Dragon, E-30, Elliott 770)
    admin of VVSz website

  2. Caroline Says:
    September 18th, 2012 at 16:40Hi I’m writing a thesis on the Rolex Middle Sea Yacht Race, part of the Rolex yachting series. I’m wondering where you would place it and if you have any interesting information for me.
    I look forward to heaing from you. Kindest regards,
  3. jan-kees.mons Says:
    September 20th, 2012 at 21:43Hello Caroline,
    Thx for your comment! The Rolex Middle Sea Yacht Race is certainly a prestigious one and starting in a couple of weeks. As far as I know more than 60 boats will participate of which some of the big yachts like Ran and Esimit Europa. You can find more info on their site….I do not think it should rank in the top 10 but it is an interesting race; however there are more interesting ones taking place in the Mediterannee I believe. Nice paintings by the way!

    best regards
    Jan Kees

  4. Milind Paranjpe Says:
    May 19th, 2013 at 13:35Where would you place Jules Verne trophy?
    I intend to write an article on it.
    Thanks and best rgds
    Milind Paranjpe
  5. jan-kees.mons Says:
    May 29th, 2013 at 16:36The Jules Verne trophy could certainly be a potential top 10 candidate. Is is high profile but simultaneously there is a big but…….it is not a real race amongst yachts. You can subscribe and circumgate the world and try to beat the record, a formidable achievement if you succeed, but you are still not racing head to head

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Fastnet Race

Fastnet Race yacht CV1 a Clipper 68

Fastnet Race yacht CV1 a Clipper 68 (Photo credit: david.nikonvscanon)

2013 Rolex Fastnet Race 40 Degrees - 11th Hour...

2013 Rolex Fastnet Race 40 Degrees – 11th Hour Racing (Photo credit: Ian A Kirk.)

Cowes Esplanade and Cowes Castle (home of the ...

Cowes Esplanade and Cowes Castle (home of the Royal Yacht Squadron). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Skandia (Formerly Ellen McArthurs &qu...

English: Skandia (Formerly Ellen McArthurs “Kingfisher”) Skandia being prepared for the start of the 2005 Fastnet Race. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Setting off on The Fastnet Race 2005....

English: Setting off on The Fastnet Race 2005. Some of the smaller entrants setting off on this famous race. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Official logo of the 2011 Fastnet Race

The Fastnet Race is a famous biennial offshore yachting race organised by the Royal Ocean Racing Club of the United Kingdom. Generally considered one of the classic offshore races, ‘Fastnet’ is a difficult contest testing both inshore and offshore skills, boat and crew preparation and speed potential. From its inception, the Fastnet Race has proven highly influential in the growth of offshore racing, and remains closely linked to advances in yacht design, sailingtechnique and safety equipment.

The Fastnet Race has been sponsored by the Swiss watch manufacturing company Rolexsince 2001. The Race prize is known as the Fastnet Challenge Cup.


The Fastnet Race takes place every two years over a course of 608 nautical miles (1,126 km). The race starts off Cowes 50°45′34″N 1°18′1″W on the Isle of Wight on the south coast ofEngland at the Royal Yacht Squadron. Leaving The Solent through The Needles Channel, the race follows the southern coastline of England westward down the English Channel, before rounding Land’s End. After crossing the Celtic Sea, the race rounds the Fastnet Rock51°23′3″N 9°36′1″W off the southwest coast of Ireland. Returning on a largely reciprocal course, the race rounds the Scilly Islands before finishing at Plymouth 50°22′17″N 4°8′33″W.

The Fastnet is a challenging race. Taking place in August, the race is often provided with Westerlies that are strong to gale force in strength. The succession of low pressure systemswhich advance on the British Isles across the North Atlantic Ocean provide a constantly moving weather pattern for which Fastnet navigators must plan. These depressions are mostly centered north of the English Channel. Knowledge of where meteorological disturbances are likely to occur, and how best to use them, is the keynote to success in the race.

Coastal landmarks passed along the route include: The NeedlesPortland BillStart PointThe LizardLand’s End, the Fastnet RockBishop’s Rock off the Scillies and Plymouth breakwater.


Weston Martyr, a British yachtsman, conceived the idea of the Race after having competed inBermudan yacht races. Entered by seven vessels, the inaugural Fastnet Race was won by Jolie Brise in 1925.

The International Offshore Rule (IOR) was introduced in 1973, and the yachts and crews began taking sponsorships.

1979 Fastnet Race[edit]

Main article: 1979 Fastnet race

A severe storm during the 1979 race resulted in the deaths of eighteen people (fifteen competing yachtsmen and three rescuers) and the involvement of some 4,000 others in what became the largest ever rescue operation in peace-time. This led to a major overhaul of the rules and the equipment required for the competition.[1][2] Several books have since been written about the 1979 race, which remains notorious in the yachting world for its loss of life.[1][3][4] In the 1979 race, “15 sailors died, five boats sank, and at least 75 boats flipped upside down”, that is turtled.[2]

Capsize of Drum (1985)[edit]

The Race drew further attention from outside the sport in 1985 when the maxi yacht Drum capsized after the keel sheared off due to a design error. The boat was helmed by the New Zealander Phil Holland, brother of its designer Ron Holland. Pop star Simon Le Bon, co-owner and crew member of Drum, was trapped under the hull with five other crew members for twenty minutes, until being rescued by the Royal Navy. The Search and Rescue Diver was Petty Officer Air Crewman (POACMN) Larry “Scouse” Slater of 771 Naval Air Squadron who appeared on This Is Your Life on 9 April 1986.[5]

Capsize of Rambler (2011)[edit]

In 2011, the 100-foot maxi yacht Rambler 100[6] capsized after her keel broke off between Fastnet Rock and the Pantaenius Buoy (a temporary race mark placed southwest of the Fastnet Rock[7]). All 21 crew were rescued safely. Sixteen were rescued from the upturned hull, by the RNLI Baltimore Lifeboat[8] Hilda Jarrett. A further 5 crewmembers, including the owner/skipper George David, had floated away from the vessel, but managed to link themselves together. They were in the water for approximately 2.5 hours, before being rescued by a Baltimore based diving vessel, Wave Chieftain. One of these crewmembers, Wendy Touton, suffered hypothermia and was taken by helicopter to Tralee General Hospital.[9] Four crew-members had been below decks at the time of capsize and were not adequately dressed for egress into the sea. All uninjured crew were taken to Baltimore.[10] The Naval Service patrol ship LÉ Aoiferemained with the hull, worth $10,000,000 before the capsize, before it was towed to Barleycove by the Castletownbere-based tugOcean Bank.[11][12]

Fastnet Race 2005[edit]

The 2005 Race was sponsored by Rolex and organised by the Royal Ocean Racing Club with the Royal Yacht Squadron and the Royal Western Yacht Club, Plymouth.

Fastnet Race 2007[edit]

The RORC in 2007 set an entry limit of 300 boats for the first time. The start of the 2007 Race was postponed by 25 hours, due to a severe weather warning. This was the first time this had been done in the race’s 83 year history. Overnight gale force winds and resulting extreme seas forced over three-quarters of the boats to retire, sheltering in ports along the south coast of England, includingTorbayPlymouth and Weymouth.

By 10:00hrs on 16 August 207 boats of the 271-strong field had retired with at least three suffering rig problems.[13] [14]

Despite the conditions, Mike Slade’s Icap Leopard 3, launched in June 2007, set a new record of 44 hours 18 min, taking almost 9 hours off the previous record set in 1999. Ger O’Rourke’s Chieftain was the overall winner on corrected time.

Fastnet Race 2009[edit]

Fastnet Race 2011[edit]

A record number of 320 boats entered the 2011 Race – the largest total since the ill-fated 1979 Race (303 entries). A total of nineteen nations were represented, with the bulk of entries still from Britain and France.

Fastnet Race 2013[edit]

Plymouth Yacht Haven was selected as host port RORC Increased the number of entries to meet demands. With the entry limit of 300 filled within 24 hours, over 100 boats on the waiting list and entries from multihulls, IMOCA 60s and Class 40s were still coming in, demand for places in 2013’s Fastnet Race has been at its highest level thus far.[15]

Winners (the following results are to be considered provisional): IRC Overall: Night And Day, a JPK 10.10 owned by Pascal Loison; MOCRA Multihull: Oman Air – Musandam, a MOD 70 owned by Sidney Gavignet.

Race records[edit]

Monohull vessels

The monohull race record is 42hrs 39min, set by Ian Walker‘s Volvo Open 70 Abu Dhabi (UAE) in 2011. The other two Volvo Open 70participating in the 2011 Fastnet Race (Groupama 4 and Team Sanya) also broke the previous record, which had been set by ICAP Leopard in 2007.

Multihull vessels

The multihull race record is currently held by the 130-foot trimaran Banque Populaire V, skippered by Loïck Peyron, with a total elapsed time of 32hrs, 48min (an average speed of 18.5 knots),[16] set in 2011. Peyron held the previous multihull record, set in 1999 in the 60-foot ORMA trimaran Fujcolor II of 40hrs, 27min.[16]

Corrected Time Winners[edit]

This transport-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
Year Yacht Owner Designer
1925 United Kingdom Jolie Brise Lt Cdr E. G. Martin Alexandre Pâris
1926 United Kingdom Ilex Royal Engineers Charles E. Nicholson
1927 United Kingdom Tally Ho Lord Stalbridge Albert Strange
1928 United States Nina Paul Hammond Starling Burgess
1929 United Kingdom Jolie Brise Lt Cdr E. G. Martin Alexandre Pâris
1930 United Kingdom Jolie Brise Lt Cdr E. G. Martin Alexandre Pâris
1931 United States Dorade [1] Olin Stephens Sparkman & Stephens
1933 United States Dorade Olin Stephens Sparkman & Stephens
1935 United States Stormy Weather Olin Stephens Sparkman & Stephens
1937 Netherlands Zeearend Kees Bruynzeel Sparkman & Stephens
1939 United Kingdom Bloodhound Ike Bell Camper and Nicholsons
1947 United Kingdom Myth of Malham Capt. J.H.Illingworth John Laurent Giles
1949 United Kingdom Myth of Malham Capt. J.H.Illingworth John Laurent Giles
1951 United Kingdom Yeoman Owen Aisher Camper and Nicholsons
1953 United Kingdom Favona Sir Michael Newton Robert Clark
1955 United States Carina Dick Nye Philip Rhodes
1957 United States Carina Dick Nye Philip Rhodes
1959 Sweden Anitra Sven Hansen Sparkman & Stephens
1961 Netherlands Zwerver II Otto van der Vorm Sparkman & Stephens
1963 United Kingdom Clarion of Wight [2] Derek Boyer DFC Sparkman & Stephens
1965 United States Rabbit Dick Carter Dick Carter
1967 France Pen Duick III Éric Tabarly Éric Tabarly
1969 United States Red Rooster Dick Carter Dick Carter
1971 Australia Ragamuffin Syd Fisher Sparkman & Stephens
1973 Brazil Saga Erling Lorentzen Sparkman & Stephens
1975 United Kingdom Golden Delicious Richard & Harvey Bagnall Ron Holland
1977 United States Imp David Allen Ron Holland
1979 United States Tenacious [3] Ted Turner Sparkman & Stephens
1981 France Mordicus Taylor and Volterys Mauric/Gaubert
1983 Netherlands Shamrock Maller & Snoeren Hellevoetsluis
1985 United Kingdom Panda Peter Whipp Philippe Briand
1987 United Kingdom Juno III M Peacock Rob Humphries
1989 United States Great News John Calvert-Jones / Tom Blackaller Farr Yacht Design
1991 United Kingdom Min-O-Din John Humphries/Matt Humphries David Thomas
1995 Sweden Nicorette (ex-Charles Jourdain) Ludde Ingvall Ribadeau-Dumas/Simonis Voogd
1997 Sweden Royal Blue (ex-Nicorette) Gunnar Ekdahl Ribadeau-Dumas/Simonis Voogd
1999 France Whirlpool-Europe 2 Catherine Chabaud Philippe Harlé – Alain Mortain
2001 Netherlands Tonnerre de Breskens Piet Vroon Lutra Design Group
2003 United Kingdom Nokia Charles Dunstone Reichel/Pugh
2005 France Iromiguy Jean-Yves Chateau Ron Holland
2007 Republic of Ireland Chieftain Ger O’Rourke Farr Yacht Design
2009 United Kingdom Rán 2 Niklas Zennström Judel Vrolijk
2011 United Kingdom Rán 2 Niklas Zennström Judel Vrolijk
2013 France Night And Day Pascal Loison Jacques valer

Line Honours Winners[edit]

This transport-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
Year Yacht Owner Designer Elapsed Time
1925 United Kingdom Jolie Brise Lt Cdr E. G. Martin Alexandre Pâris 6day 3h
1926 United Kingdom Hallowe’en Col J. F. N. Baxendale William Fife 3day 19h 5m
1927 United States La Goleta R. St.L. Beverley Alden
1928 United States Nina Paul Hammond & others Starling Burgess
1929 United Kingdom Jolie Brise Bobby Somerset Alexandre Pâris
1930 United Kingdom Jolie Brise Bobby Somerset Alexandre Pâris
1931 United Kingdom Patience H. E. West Charles Nicholson
1935 United Kingdom Kismet III William Fife
1937 United Kingdom Bloodhound Isaac Bell Charles Nicholson
1947 United Kingdom Latifa Michael Mason William Fife
1949 United Kingdom Latifa Michael Mason William Fife
1953 United Kingdom Bloodhound Isaac Bell Charles Nicholson
1955 Spain Mare Nostrum Sparkman & Stephens
1979 Bermuda Condor of Bermuda Bob Bell John Sharp
1981 Bermuda Condor Bob Bell Ron Holland
1983 Bermuda CONDOR Bob Bell Ron Holland
1985 United States Nirvana Marvin Green Dave Pedrick 2day 12h 34m
1989 New Zealand Steinlager II Peter Blake Bruce Farr
1995 Sweden Nicorette (ex-Charles Jourdain) Ludde Ingvall Ribadeau-Dumas/Simonis Voogd
1999 European Union RF Yachting Ross Field Bruce Farr 2day 5h 8m
2001 Italy Stealth Gianni Agnelli Frers 2day 10h 58m
2003 New Zealand Alfa Romeo – Shockwave Neville Chrichton Reichel/Pugh 2day 9h 2m 0s
2005 New Zealand Maximus EBS Yachting Greg Elliott 2day 20h 2m 7s
2007 United Kingdom ICAP Leopard Mike Slade Bruce Farr 1day 20h 18m 53s
2009 United Kingdom ICAP Leopard Mike Slade Bruce Farr 2day 11h 9min 36s
2011 France Banque Populaire V Loick Peyron VPLP 1day 8h 48m 46s
2013 France Spindrift 2 Yann Guichard and Dona Bertarelli VPLP 1day 14h 53m 58s

External links[edit]

Personal Accounts[edit]


  1. Jump up to:a b Forbes, Sir Hugh; Laing, Sir Maurice; Myatt, Lt. Col. James.“1979 Fastnet Race Inquiry” (PDF). Royal Yachting AssociationRoyal Ocean Racing Club. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  2. Jump up to:a b Rousmaniere, John (January 2000). “Revisiting Lessons from the Fastnet”. SailNet.com. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  3. Jump up^ Rousmaniere, John (1980). Fastnet, Force 10: The Deadliest Storm in the History of Modern Sailing (Paperback). W. W. Norton & Company (April 17, 2000). p. 304. ISBN 0393308650.ISBN 978-0393308655
  4. Jump up^ “Fastnet 79: The Disaster that Changed Sailing (Eye witness accounts)”Yachting World. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  5. Jump up^ “The History of Arnold Clark Drum”. Arnold Clark. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  6. Jump up^ “Crew rescued from Fastnet Race yacht Rambler 100”. BBC. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  7. Jump up^ “2011-11-Rolex Fastnet Race-Pantaenius Buoy”. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  8. Jump up^ “Fastnet race yacht capsizes off Ireland”. The Guardian. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
  9. Jump up^ Niamh Stephenson (15 August 2011). “Baltimore RNLI in major rescue operation off the Cork coast after Fastnet yacht capsizes”. RNLI. Archived from the original on 6 October 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  10. Jump up^ “Rambler capsized”. Sailing Anarchy. 15 August 2011. Archived from the original on 16 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  11. Jump up^ Lorna Siggins (17 August 2011). “Inquiry into sinking under way”The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 6 October 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  12. Jump up^ Rousmaniere, John (13 September 2012). “Sailing Accidents: Lessons Learned”Sail (magazine). Retrieved November 27, 2013.
  13. Jump up^ “Severe weather hits Fastnet crews”. BBC. 14 August 2007. Archived from the original on 6 October 2011.
  14. Jump up^ “Rolex Fastnet Race fleet facing gale-force winds”Royal Ocean Racing Club. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.
  15. Jump up^ “RORC Increase Entries to Rolex Fastnet Race”. Cruise Racing. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
  16. Jump up to:a b “Fastnet Minisite”RORC. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.

Offshore sailing races
Single-handed races
Double-handed races
Crewed races

Challenge Trophy

English: General Charles Jackson Paine's 85-fo...

English: General Charles Jackson Paine’s 85-foot sloop Volunteer turning Sandy Hook Lightship during the America’s Cup race on Sept. 27, 1887. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

"Freedom" (US-30)

“Freedom” (US-30) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Yachts Columbia and Shamrock, the con...

English: Yachts Columbia and Shamrock, the contestants in the 1899 America’s Cup. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: The America's Cup

English: The America’s Cup (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

International Catamaran

Colman First Americas Cup

Colman First Americas Cup (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The International Catamaran Challenge Trophy is the formal name for the match racing series between two catamarans familiarly known the Little Americas Cup.

Loosely modelled on the Americas Cup series for yachts, it started in 1961 after UK catamaran designer McAlpine-Downey became aware of a challenge from America that claimed they had “the fastest sailboat” Rod answered the challenge and simple rules were agreed. The challenge had to come from a recognized yacht club and consequently was taken up by John Fisk on behalf of the Chapman Sands Yacht Club of which he was Commodore and friend of Rod. The challenge was successful and the trophy went to the UK where it stayed for 8 years.

The simple design rules were formalised, overall length of 25 feet (7.6 m), beam of 14 feet (4.3 m) and total sail area of 300 square feet (28 m2) to be sailed by a two man crew. These formed the basis of the rules for the International C-Class Catamaran.




The early years saw major participation from amateur designers including Rodney March, who went on to design the Tornado which was adopted as an Olympic class for competition. His most radical contribution at that time was a wing mast/soft sail combination una-rigwhich was untouchable particularly in light airs. Further development of this concept led to the solid wingsail as used by “Oracle” in the 2010 America’s Cup successful challenge, and the AC45 and AC72s.

Interest in the Cup waned in the UK when “Thunder” failed to gain the right to defend the challenge against the Australian, “Quest” in 1965. The decision to continue with the aging “Emma Hamilton” and Reg White, sponsored by A.R.(Bertie) Holloway almost cost the UK the Cup then. Only the brilliance of Reg White kept him level with Quest and in the final decider, with the Australian challenger in the lead a strong squall caught Quest on a broad reach and she capsized.

White and Holloway went on to develop the wing and soft sail combo for Lady Helmsman (currently located at the National Maritime Museum Cornwall), sponsored by the paint company but by now the “amateurs” had dropped out. The best thing to happen to the Cup was loss to Denmark and then their subsequent loss to Australia. Challenges between Australia and America continued for several years and during this time the solid Wing mast gained supremacy.

However costs were escalating and the America’s Cup was swallowing sponsorship funding. Attempts in America to revive the event finally killed it. The proposed commercialization of the event together with the removal of any design development together with the particular design chosen for the event F-18HT Beach Catamaran guaranteed that anyone who had had earlier participation and motivation would walk away. There has been no racing since. The Little America’s Cup has joined the Dodo. However, a reborn event with similar philosophy may take the “name” to a renewed interest.,[1]

Race results of the original series[edit]

Races dwindled. They were held 12 times between 1961-1973, eight times between 1974-1989 and only twice in the old C Class format since 1989.

Year Winner, Crew
and Nation
Opponent, Crew
and Nation
1961 Hellcat II, John Fisk, Rod McAlpine-Downey UK Wildcat, John Beery & John Hickok, USA 4:1 Long Island Sound, MA (USA)
1962 Hellcat, Ian Norris & Nocky Pope, UK Beverly, Billy Saltonstall & Van Alan Clark, USA 4:1 Seacliff YC, USA
1963 Hellcat III S, Reg White& Rod Mac Alpine Downie, UK Quest, John Munns (Skipper) & Graeme Anderson, Manager Max Press,Reserve Crew John Taylor and Peter Scarfe Representing The Australian Catamaran Assoc, Albert Smith-Observer and sponsored by the Sandringham YC, Victoria,Australia 4:0  Thorpe Bay YC

Essex UK

1964 Emma Hamilton, A. R. Holloway & Reg White, Chapman Sands SC, UK Sea Lion,Bob Smith & Jerry Hubbard, Eastern Multihull Association, USA 4:1 Thorpe Bay Yacht Club, UK
1965 Emma Hamilton, Reg White,[2] UK Quest II, Australia, Lindsay Cunningham and John Buzaglo, Representing Blairgowrie Yacht Squadron, Victoria, Australia 4:3 Thorpe Bay Yacht Club, UK;
1966 Lady Helmsman, UK Gamecock, Bob Shiels & Jim Bonney, USA 4:2  Thorpe Bay UK
1967 Lady Helmsman, UK Quest III, Australia Peter Bolton, Skipper 4:1  Thorpe Bay UK
1968 Lady Helmsman, UK Yankee Flyer, USA  Thorpe Bay UK
1969 Opus III, Denmark Ocelot, UK 4:3
1970 Quest III, Australia Sleipner, Denmark– Australian Crew- Bruce Proctor and Graham Candy
1972 Quest III, Bruce Proctor, Graham Ainslie, Australia Weathercock, Chuck Millican, Jack Evans, USA 4:0 Sorrento Sailing Club, Australia
1974 Miss Nylex, Australia

Blairgowrie Yacht Squadron Crew Bruce Proctor and Graham Ainslie

Miss New Zealand 4:0  Sorrento Sailing Club,Victoria,


1976 Aquarius V, Alex Kosloff and crew Robbie Harvey Cabrillo Beach YC, CA, USA Miss Nylex, Sorrento Yacht Club in Australia, Bruce Proctor, Skipper and Graeme Ainslie 4:3 Sorrento Sailing Club,Victoria,


1977 Patient Lady III, USA Quest, Australia 4:0 Roton Point Club, Rowayton, CT USA
1978 Patient Lady IV, USA Miss Lancia, Italy 4:0 Roton Point Club, Rowayton, CT USA
1980 Patient Lady V, USA Signor G (for Signor Gividi), Italy 4:0 Roton Point Club, Rowayton, CT USA
1982 Patient Lady V, USA Signor G 4:0 Roton Point Club, Rowayton, CT USA
1985 Victoria 150, Australia Patient Lady VI, USA Roton Point Club, Rowayton, CT USA
1987 The Edge, Australia The Hinge, UK McCrae Yacht Club,

Victoria, Australia

1989 The Edge II, Simon McKeon & David Churcher, Australia Wingmill, USA McCrae Yacht Club,

Victoria, Australia

1991 The Edge III, Simon McKeon & David Churcher, Australia Freedom’s Wing, Pete Melvin and Steve Rosenberg, USA 4:1 McCrae Yacht Club,

Victoria, Australia

1996 Cogito, Duncan MacLane
Yellow Pages The Edge III,
4:0 McCrae Yacht Club,

Victoria, Australia

1997 onwards No races held in this format under this name. Please see ICCC from this point forward

While the ICCT has changed in format, C Class match racing continues on with the International C-Class Catamaran Championship, and the race results continue there.

Race results of the current series[edit]

Year Winner, Crew
and Nation
Opponent, Crew
and Nation

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  1. Jump up^ “Team Invictus Challenge History”. Team Invictus. Retrieved 2013-09-23.
  2. Jump up^ Reg White later represented the UK sailing the Tornado in the Olympic Games, winning Gold

America’s Cup

English: William Amory Gardner's schooner Mayf...

English: William Amory Gardner’s schooner Mayflower (Edward Burgess design, 1886) racing in the Eastern Yacht Club’s annual regatta on June 29th, 1891. She had previously defended the America’s Cup with a sloop rig in 1886. New York Times – The Eastern Yacht Club race (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: the Atlantic Yacht Club syndicate's A...

English: the Atlantic Yacht Club syndicate’s Atlantic (Philip R. Ellsworth design, 1886), built as a candidate to defend the America’s Cup in 1886. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: The America's Cup

English: The America’s Cup (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: Lithography of the yacht America. Deu...

English: Lithography of the yacht America. Deutsch: Die Yacht America, Namensgeberin des America’s Cup, auf einer Lithographie von 1851. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Royal Perth Yacht Club, Scotland

Royal Perth Yacht Club, Scotland (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

English: "The Yacht 'America' Winning the...

English: “The Yacht ‘America’ Winning the International Race,” oil on canvas, by the American artist Fitz Hugh Lane. Courtesy of the Peabody Collection. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the international yachting trophy. For other uses, see America’s Cup (disambiguation).
America’s Cup
The America's Cup.jpg

The America’s Cup trophy
Sport Sailing match race
Founded 1851
Most recent champion(s) United States Golden Gate Yacht Club
Most titles United States New York Yacht Club(25)
Official website americascup.com

The America’s Cup, affectionately known as the “Auld Mug”, is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America’s Cup match races between two sailing yachts. One yacht, known as the defender, represents the yacht club that currently holds the America’s Cup and the second yacht, known as the challenger, represents the yacht club that is challenging for the cup. The timing of each match is determined by an agreement between the defender and the challenger. The America’s Cup is the oldest international sporting trophy.[1]

The trophy was originally awarded in 1851 by the Royal Yacht Squadron for a race around the Isle of Wight in England, which was won by the schoonerAmerica. The trophy was renamed the America’s Cup after the yacht and was donated to the New York Yacht Club (NYYC) under the terms of the Deed of Gift, which made the cup available for perpetual international competition.

Any yacht club that meets the requirements specified in the Deed of Gift has the right to challenge the yacht club that holds the Cup. If the challenging club wins the match, it gains stewardship of the cup.

The history and prestige associated with the America’s Cup attracts not only the world’s top sailors and yacht designers but also the involvement of wealthy entrepreneurs and sponsors. It is a test not only of sailing skill and boat and sail design, but also of fund-raising and management skills.

The trophy was held by the NYYC from 1857 (when the syndicate that won the Cup donated the trophy to the club) until 1983 when the Cup was won by theRoyal Perth Yacht Club, represented by the yacht Australia II, ending the longest winning streak in the history of sport.[2]

From the first defense of the Cup in 1870 through the twentieth defense in 1967, there was always only one challenger. In 1970, for the first time, there were multiple challengers, so the NYYC agreed that the challengers could run a selection series with the winner becoming the official challenger and competing against the defender in the America’s Cup match. Since 1983, Louis Vuitton has sponsored the Louis Vuitton Cup as a prize for the winner of the challenger selection series.

Early matches for the Cup were raced between yachts 65–90 ft (20–27 m) on the waterline owned by wealthy sportsmen. This culminated with the J-Class regattas of the 1930s. After World War II and almost twenty years without a challenge, the NYYC made changes to the Deed of Gift to allow smaller, less expensive 12-metre class yachts to compete; this class was used until it was replaced in 1990 by the International America’s Cup Class which was used until 2007.

After a long legal battle, the 2010 America’s Cup was raced in 90 ft (27 m) lwl multihull yachts in a best-of-three “deed-of-gift” match in Valencia, Spain. The victorious Golden Gate Yacht Club then elected to race the 34th America’s Cup in AC72 foiling, wing-sail catamarans. Golden Gate Yacht Club successfully defended the Cup, making it likely that the 35th America’s Cup match will be also sailed in foiling multi-hull yachts.


The Yacht “America” Winning the International Race, by Fitz Henry Lane, 1851

The Cup is an ornate sterling silver bottomless ewer, one of several off-the-shelf trophies crafted in 1848 by Garrard & Co.[3] Henry William Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey bought one and donated it for the Royal Yacht Squadron‘s 1851 Annual Regatta around the Isle of Wight.

It was originally known as the “R.Y.S. £100 Cup”, standing for a cup of a hundred GB Pounds or “sovereigns” in value. The Cup was subsequently mistakenly engraved[4] as the “100 Guinea Cup” by the America syndicate, but was also referred to as the “Queen’s Cup” (a guinea is an old monetary unit of one pound and one shilling, now £1.05). Today, the trophy is officially known as the “America’s Cup” after the 1851 winning yacht, and is affectionately called the “Auld Mug” by the sailing community. It is inscribed with names of the yachts that competed for it,[4] and has been modified twice by adding matching bases to accommodate more names.

1851 America wins the Cup[edit]

In 1851 Commodore John Cox Stevens, a charter member of the fledgling New York Yacht Club (NYYC), formed a six-person syndicate to build a yacht with intention of taking her to England and making some money competing in yachting regattas and match races. The syndicate contracted with pilot-boat designer George Steers for a 101 ft (30.78 m) schooner, which was christened America and launched on 3 May 1851.

On 22 August 1851, America raced against 15 yachts of the Royal Yacht Squadron in the Club’s annual 53-nautical-mile (98 km)regatta around the Isle of WightAmerica won, finishing 8 minutes ahead of the closest rival. Apocryphally, Queen Victoria, who was watching at the finish line, was reported to have asked who was second, the famous answer being: “Ah, Your Majesty, there is no second.”[5]

The surviving members of the America syndicate donated the Cup via the Deed of Gift of the America’s Cup to the NYYC on 8 July 1857, specifying that it be held in trust as a perpetual challenge trophy to promote friendly competition among nations.

Defender Columbia, 1871

1870–1881 First challenges[edit]

No challenge to race for the Cup was issued until British railway tycoon James Lloyd Ashbury‘s topsail schooner Cambria (188 tons, 1868 design) beat the Yankee schooner Sappho (274.4 tons, 1867 design) in the Solent in 1868.[6] This success encouraged the Royal Thames Yacht Club in believing that the Cup could be brought back home, and officially placed the first challenge in 1870. Ashbury entered Cambria in the NYYC Queen’s Cup race in New York City on 8 August against a fleet of seventeen schooners, with time allowed based on their tonnage. The Cambria only placed eighth, behind the aging America (178.6 tons, 1851) in fourth place and Franklin Osgood’s Magic(92.2 tons, 1857)[7] in the fleet’s lead.[8]

Trying again, Ashbury offered a best-of-seven match race challenge for October 1871, which the NYYC accepted provided a defending yacht could be chosen on the morning of each race. Ashbury’s new yacht Livonia (264 tons) was beaten twice in a row by Osgood’s new centreboard schooner Columbia (220 tons), which withdrew in the third race after dismasting. The yacht Sappho then stepped in as defender to win the fourth and fifth races, thereby successfully defending the Cup.[9]

The next challenge came from the Royal Canadian Yacht Club and was the first to be disputed between two yachts only. The schoonerMadeleine (148.2 tons, 1868), a previous defender from the 1870 fleet race, easily defeated the challenger Countess of Dufferin (221 tons, 1876 design by Alexander Cuthbert). Cuthbert filed the second Canadian challenge, bankrolling, designing and sailing the firstsloop challenge for the America’s Cup in 1881. The small 65 ft (19.81 m) Canadian challenger Atalanta[10] (84 tons, 1881), representing the Bay of Quinte Yacht Club, suffered from lack of funds, unfinished build and a difficult delivery through the Erie Canal from Lake Ontario to New York. In contrast, the NYYC cautiously prepared its first selection trials. The iron sloop Mischief (79 tons, 1879 design by Archibald Cary Smith) was chosen from four sloop candidates, and successfully defended the cup.

Defender Volunteer, 1887

1885–1887 The NYYC Rule[edit]

In response to the incompetent Canadian challenges, the Deed of Gift was amended in 1881 to require that challenges be accepted only from yacht clubs on the sea and that challenger yachts must sail to the venue on their own hull. Furthermore, Archibald Cary Smith and the NYYC committee devised a new rating rule that would govern the next races. They included sail area and waterline length into the handicap, with penalties on waterlines longer than 85 ft (25.91 m). Irish yacht designer John Beavor-Webb launched the challengers Genesta (1884) and Galatea (1885), which would define the British “plank-on-edge” design of a heavy, deep and narrow-keel hull, making for very stiff yachts ideal for the British breeze.[11] The boats came to New York in 1885 and 1886 respectively, but neither would best the sloops Puritan or Mayflower, whose success in selection trials against many other candidates proved Boston designer Edward Burgess was the master of the “compromise sloop”[12](lightweight, wide and shallow hull with centerboard). This design paradigm proved ideal for the light Yankee airs.[13]

In 1887, Edward Burgess repeated his success with the Volunteer against Scottish yacht designer George Lennox Watson‘s challengerThistle, which was built in secret. Even when the Thistle was dry-docked in New York before the races, her hull was draped to protect the secret of her lines, which borrowed from American design. Both Volunteer and Thistle were completely unfurnished below decks to save weight.[14]

1889–1903 The Seawanhaka Rule[edit]

In 1887, the NYYC adopted the Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht Club‘s rating rule, in which Bristol, RI naval architect Nathanael Herreshoff found loopholes that he would use to make dramatic improvements in yacht design and to shape the America’s Cup’s largest and most extreme contenders. Both Herreshoff and Watson proceeded to merge Yankee sloop design and British cutter design to make very deep S-shape fin-keeled hulls. Using steel, tobin bronze, aluminium, and even nickel for novel construction, they significantly lengthened bow and stern overhangs, further extending the sailing waterline as their boats heeled over, thus increasing their speed.

Challenger Valkyrie II, 1893
Columbia & Shamrock, 1899

The next America’s Cup challenge was initially limited to 70 ft (21.34 m) waterline in 1889, but the mutual-agreement clauses of a new 1887 Deed of Gift caused the Royal Yacht Squadron to withdraw the Earl of Dunraven‘s promising Watson-designed challenger Valkyrie while she was crossing the Atlantic. Dunraven challenged again in 1893, pleading for a return to the longer 85 ft (26 m) limit. In a cup-crazed Britain, its four largest cutters ever were being built, including Watson’s Valkyrie II for Dunraven’s challenge. Meanwhile, the NYYC’s wealthiest members ordered two cup candidates from Herreshoff, and two more from Boston yacht designers. Charles Oliver Iselin, who was running the syndicate behind one of the Herreshoff designs called Vigilant, gave the naval architect leave to design the yacht entirely as he willed. Herreshoff helmed Vigilant himself and beat all his rivals in selection trials, and defended the Cup successfully from Valkyrie II.[15]

Urged to challenge again in yet larger boat sizes, Dunraven challenged again in 1895 with a 90 ft (27.43 m) waterline limit. The Watson-designed challenger Valkyrie III received many innovations: She would be wider than the defender, and featured the first steel mast.[16] The NYYC ordered another defender from Herreshoff, which he had built in a closed-off hangar and launched at night so as to conceal her construction: Defender used an aluminium topside riveted to steel frames and manganese bronze below waters. This saved 17 tons of displacement, but later subjected the boat to extreme electrolysis after the Cup races. Valkyrie III lost the first race, was deemed disqualified in the second race following a collision with Defender before the start line despite finishing first, and in turn withdrew from the contest. The unraveling of the races left Dunraven in a bitter disagreement with all parties over fairness of the Cup Committee concerning claims. After he asserted that he had been cheated, his honorary membership of the NYYC was revoked.[17]Henry “Hank” Coleman Haff, was inducted into America’s Cup Hall of Fame in 2004 for his sailing of Defender in 1895 and bringing the cup back. At age 58, Hank Haff was the oldest cup winner in the history of the race.[18]

The climate was estranged until Scottish businessman Sir Thomas Lipton became the financial backer for the Royal Ulster Yacht Club‘s 1899 challenge. William Fife was chosen to design the challenging yacht because of past success in American waters.[19] The yachts increased yet again in size, and this time Herreshoff fitted a telescopic steel mast to his defender Columbia, but his largest contribution was to recruit Scottish-American skipper Charlie Barr. The latter had helmed Fife designs[20] in Yankee waters before, and he had shown perfect coordination with his hand-picked Scandinavian crew. Barr successfully helmed Columbia to victory, and Lipton’s noted fair play provided unprecedented popular appeal to the sport and to his tea brand.

Although upset with the Shamrock, Lipton challenged again in 1901, turning this time to George Lennox Watson for a “cup-lifter”:Shamrock II, Watson’s fourth and final challenger, was the first cup contender to be thoroughly tank-tested. To defend the Cup, businessman Thomas W. Lawson funded for Boston designer Bowdoin B. Crowninshield a daring project: his yacht Independence was capable of unrivaled performance because of her extremely long sailing waterline, but she was largely overpowered and unbalanced and suffered from structural issues. Furthermore, Lawson’s failure to commit to the NYYC’s terms for defending the Cup defaulted theIndependenceʼs elimination. Herreshoff had again received a commission from the NYYC, but had failed to secure Charlie Barr to skipper his new yacht Constitution. Instead, the Columbiaʼs syndicate kept Barr’s crew and tried another defense. Unexpectedly, Barr led the Columbiaʼs crew to win the selection trials, and to successfully defend the cup again.

Lipton persisted in a third challenge in 1903. With the aim to fend off Lipton’s challenges indefinitely, the NYYC garnered a huge budget for a single cup contender, whose design would be commissioned to Herreshoff again. Improving on the Independence and his previous designs, the new defender Reliance remains the largest race sloop ever built. She featured a ballasted rudder, dual-speed winches below decks, and a cork-decked aluminium topside that hid running rigging. The design focus on balance was exemplary, but the extreme yacht also required the skills of an excellent skipper, which defaulted choice options to Charlie Barr. Facing the equally bold challenger Shamrock III, Barr led the Reliance to victory in just three races.[21]

1914–1937 The Universal Rule[edit]

Despite the immense success of the Reliance, she was used only one season, her design and maintenance keeping her from being used for any other purpose than for a cup defense. The extremity of both 1903 cup contenders encouraged Nathanael Herreshoff to make boats more wholesome and durable by devising a new rule. Proposing in the same year the Universal Rule, he added the elements of overall length and displacement into the rating, to the benefit of heavy, voluminous hulls and also divided boats into classes, without handicapping sail area. This went against the American Yacht Clubs’ and the British Yacht Racing Association‘s general desire to promote speed at all costs for cup boats, but the NYYC adopted Herreshoff’s proposal. Lipton long pleaded for a smaller size of yachts in the new rule, and the NYYC conceded to seventy-five footers in 1914. Lipton turned to Charles Ernest Nicholson for his fourth challenge, and got a superb design under the inauspicious shape of Shamrock IV, with a flat transom.[22] She was the most powerful yacht that year, and the NYYC turned out three cup candidates to defend the cup: of George Owen’s Defiance and William Gardner‘sVanitie, it was Herreshoff who designed the wisest of all contenders.[23] His last design for the cup, Resolute, was small, which earned significant time allowance over other yachts. Barr had died, but his crew manned the Resolute, which faced stiff competition fromVanitie, but went on to win the selection trials, before the Cup was suspended as World War I broke out. The Shamrock IV waited in New York City’s Erie Basin dry dock until 1920, when she received some adjustments to her build and ballast, just before the races were held. Despite Shamrock IVʼs severe rating, she took the first two races from Resolute, and came closer to winning back the Cup than any challenger before her. The defender Resolute ended the Old World’s dreams by winning every subsequent race of the event.[24]

Harold VanderbiltEnterprise‘s skipper

Shamrock IV was never raced again, but the Universal Rule drew significant appeal, especially in the small M-Class. Undoubting that the new rule meant a serious opportunity for the British to challenge the cup, Lipton challenged the America’s Cup for the fifth and last time at age 79, in 1929. The J-Class was chosen for the contest, to which were addedLloyds‘ A1 scantling rules in order to ensure that the yachts would be seaworthy and evenly matched, given the Deed of Gift requirement for yachts to sail to the match on their “own bottom.” The waterline length was set between 76 ft (23.16 m) and 88 ft (26.82 m), and there would be no time allowance. Novel rigging technology now permitted the bermuda rig to replace the gaff rig. Nicholson was chosen to design challenger Shamrock V, and despite the Wall Street Crash, four NYYC syndicates responded to the threat and built a cup contender each.[25] The venue was moved to Newport, Rhode Island, where, the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company’s new naval architect Starling Burgess used his success in the M-Class and his experience as a wartime plane designer to build the Vanderbilt syndicate’s defender Enterprise, the smallest J-Class. Meanwhile, Herreshoff’s son, Lewis Francis Herreshoff, designed a radical boat: Whirlwind, despite being the most advanced boat with her double-ended “canoe” build and electronic instruments, maneuvered too clumsily. The old 75-footers Resolute and Vanitie were rebuilt and converted to the J-Class to serve as trial horses. Enterprise‘s skipper Harold Vanderbilt won the selection trials with great difficulty. When Shamrock V was revealed, she was an outdated wooden boat with a wooden mast and performed poorly to windwardEnterprise was then fitted with the world’s first duralumin mast, the most lightweight at 4,000 lb (1,800 kg), and beat her opponent soundly.[26]

Lipton died in 1931, and English aviation industrialist Sir Thomas Sopwith bought Shamrock V with the intent of preparing the next challenge. To Nicholson’s skills, he added aeronautical expertise and materials that would intensify the rivalry into a technological race. In 1934, the Royal Yacht Squadron issued a challenge for Sopwith’s newly built challenger Endeavour. Being steel-plated, she was less disfavoured than Shamrock V, especially after a minimum mast weight limit was set to 5,500 lb (2,500 kg), as this made American duralumin technology less advantageous for this contest. Endeavour received significant innovations, but Sopwith failed to secure the services of his entire Shamrock V professional crew due to a pay strike. He hired amateurs to complete his team, and while Endeavourwas described unanimously as the faster boat in the Cup, taking the first two races, failed tactics and crew inexperience lost her the following four races to Vanderbilt’s new defender Rainbow.[27]

To challenge again, Sopwith prepared himself a year early. Nicholson designed and built in 1936 the Endeavour II to the maximum waterline length allowed, and numerous updates to the rig made her even faster than her predecessor. A change in the America’s Cup rules now allowed a contending yacht to be declared 30 days before the races, so both Endeavour and Endeavour II were shipped to Newport, where the RYS held selection series before declaring Endeavour II as the challenger. Meanwhile, Harold S. Vanderbilt, taking all syndicate defense costs to himself, commissioned Starling Burgess, yacht broker Drake Sparkman, and ocean yacht designer Olin Stephens to provide designs. They anonymously built six boat models, which were thoroughly tested in water tanks, until model 77-C was selected for its projected performance in light airs. The resulting defender Ranger was even more accomplished than her challenger, and Vanderbilt helmed his last J-Class boat to straight victory.[28][29]

1956–1987 The Twelve-Metre Rule[edit]

President Kennedy and wife watching America’s Cup, 1962

The J-class yachts from the 1930s remained the default for the Cup, but post-war economic realities meant that no one could afford to challenge in this hugely expensive class. As twenty years had passed since the last challenge, the NYYC looked for a cheaper alternative in order to restart interest in the Cup. In 1956 Henry Sears[30] led an effort to replace the J-class yachts with12-metre class yachts, which are approximately 65 to 75 feet (20 to 23 m) in overall length.

The first post-war challenge was in 1958, again from the British. Briggs Cunningham, the inventor of the cunningham sail control device, as skipper with Sears as navigator led Columbia to victory against Sceptre, which was designed by David Boyd at Alexander Robertson and Sons Ltd (Yachtbuilders), for a Royal Yacht Squadron Syndicate, chaired by Hugh Goodson.

1962–1983 The Australian challengers[edit]

The first Australian challenge was in 1962, when Gretel lost to the NYYC’s Weatherly, designed by Philip Rhodes.

A second Boyd/Robertson challenger, Sovereign, lost to the Olin Stephens–designed Constellation in 1964. In 1967, another Australian challenger, Dame Pattie, lost to the innovative Olin Stephens design Intrepid (which won again in 1970, to become the second yacht, after Columbia, to defend the Cup twice).

Defender Freedom, 1980

For the 1970 America’s Cup, interest in challenging was so high that the NYYC allowed the Challenger of Record (the original yacht club presenting the challenge accepted for the match) to organize a regatta among multiple challengers with the winner being substituted as challenger and going on to the Cup match. This innovation has been used ever since, except for the default Deed of Gift matches in 1988 and 2010.

Alan Bond, a flamboyant and controversial Australian businessman, made three unsuccessful challenges between 1974 and 1980. In 1974 the Cup was successfully defended by Courageous, which successfully defended again in 1977, at which time she was skippered by Ted Turner. In 1980 the Cup was defended by Freedom.

1983 Australia II wins the Cup[edit]

Main article: 1983 America’s Cup

The Winged keel of the victorious challenger Australia II,1983

Bond returned in 1983 for a successful fourth challenge, complete with a symbolic golden wrench which he claimed would be used to unbolt the cup from its plinth, so that he could take it back to Australia. In 1983 there were seven challengers for the cup competing for the inaugural Louis Vuitton Cup, the winner of which would go on to the America’s Cup match against the NYYC’s yacht selected in their trials. Bond’s yacht, Australia II, designed by Ben Lexcen, skippered by John Bertrand, and representing the Royal Perth Yacht Club, easily won the Louis Vuitton challenger series, and Dennis Conner in Liberty was selected for the Cup defense.

Sporting the now famous Boxing Kangaroo flag and the controversial Winged keel designed by Ben Lexcen, the hull of Australia II was kept under wraps between races and was subject to attempts by the NYYC to disqualify her. In the Cup races, the Australians got off to a bad start with equipment failures and false starts giving the defenders a head start. But it wasn’t to be a repeat of the last 132 years with the Australians coming back to win the 1983 America’s Cup 4–3 in a best-of-seven format. This was the first time the NYYC had lost the cup in 132 years and 26 challenges. Alan Bond joked that the cup would be renamed “The Australia’s Cup”.

1987 Technology and professionalism are increasingly important[edit]

Main article: 1987 America’s Cup

For the first time since its inception the America’s Cup was defended outside of the US off the coast of Fremantle, Western Australia, making it a truly international race. This was a new era for the cup which was now starting to see many other international challengers.

Representing the San Diego Yacht Club, Conner returned to win the 1987 America’s Cup. His yacht Stars & Stripes 87 earned the right to challenge by winning the 1987 Louis Vuitton Cup against an unprecedented field of 13 challenger syndicates. In the America’s Cup regatta he faced defender Iain Murray sailing Kookaburra III, who had defeated Alan Bond’s Australia IV in the defender selection trials.Stars & Stripes 87 defeated Kookaburra III four races to nil.

Technology was now playing an increasing role in yacht design. The 1983 winner, Australia II, had sported the revolutionary winged keel, and the New Zealand boat that Conner had beaten in the Louis Vuitton Cup final in Fremantle was the first 12-metre class to have a hull of fiberglass, rather than aluminum or wood.

The 12-metre class rules stipulated that the hull had to be the same thickness throughout and could not be made lighter in the bow and stern. The other challengers demanded that core samples be taken from the plastic hull to show its thickness. At one press conference Dennis Conner asked, “Why would you build a plastic yacht … unless you wanted to cheat?” Despite attempts to defuse the situation, the “cheating comment” added to the controversy surrounding the Louis Vuitton challenge races. Chris Dickson, skipper of the Kiwi Magic (KZ 7), took the controversy in stride and with humor, and Conner has subsequently stated his regret over his comment.[31] New Zealand syndicate head Sir Michael Fay’s comment was that core samples would be taken “over my dead body”. Eventually some small holes were drilled to test the hull, and ultrasonic testing was done to rule out air pockets in the construction. The boat was found to be within class rules, and the issue was set aside. Fay ceremoniously lay down in front of the measurer before the samples were taken.

1988 The Mercury Bay Challenge[edit]

Main article: 1988 America’s Cup

In 1987, soon after Conner had won back the Cup with Stars and Stripes but before the San Diego Yacht Club had publicly issued terms for the next regatta, a New Zealand syndicate, again led by merchant banker Sir Michael Fay, lodged a surprise Deed-of-Gift challenge. Fay challenged with a gigantic yacht named New Zealand (KZ1) or the Big Boat, which with a 90-foot (27 m) waterline, was the largest single-masted yacht possible under the original rules of the cup trust deed. This was an unwelcome challenge to the San Diego Yacht Club, who wanted to continue to run Cup regattas using 12-metre yachts.[32] A legal battle ensued over the challenge, with Justice Carmen Ciparick of the New York State Supreme (trial) Court (which administers the Deed of Gift) ruling that Fay’s challenge on behalf of Mercury Bay Boating Club (MBBC) was valid. The court ordered SDYC to accept it and negotiate mutually agreeable terms for a match, or to race under the default provisions of the Deed, or to forfeit the Cup to MBBC.

Forced to race, and lacking time for preparation, Conner and SDYC looked for a way to prevail. They recognized that a catamaran was not expressly prohibited under the rules. Multihulls, due to a lower wetted surface area and vastly lower mass, are inherently faster than equal-length monohulls. Conner, however, left nothing to chance and commissioned a cutting-edge design with a wing sail, named—as his 12-metre yachts had been—Stars and Stripes.

The two yachts raced under the simple terms of the Deed in September, 1988. New Zealand predictably lost by a huge margin. Fay then took SDYC back to court, arguing that the race had been unfair, certainly not the “friendly competition between nations”, envisaged in the Deed of Gift. Ciparick agreed and awarded New Zealand the Cup. However, Ciparick’s decision was overturned on appeal and SDYC’s win was reinstated. Fay then appealed to New York’s highest court and lost. Thus SDYC successfully defended the Cup in what observers described as the most controversial Cup match to that point.[33] (The 2010 America’s Cup was a direct descendant of the 1988 Cup, as it featured two gigantic multi-hull yachts and generated even more legal activity and controversy ).

1992–2007 The IACC rule[edit]

In the wake of the 1988 challenge, the International America’s Cup Class (IACC) was introduced, replacing the 12-metre class that had been used since 1958.

Defender SUI-100, 2007

In 1992, USA-23 of the America³ team, skippered by billionaire Bill Koch and sailing legend Harry “Buddy” Melges, defeated the Italian challenger Il Moro ITA-25, owned by billionaire Raul Gardini‘s Il Moro di Venezia, 4–1.

In 1995, the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron syndicate Team New Zealand, skippered by Russell Coutts, first won the challenger series in NZL 32, dubbed “Black Magic” because of her black hull and uncanny speed. Black Magic then easily defeated Dennis Connor’s Stars & Stripes team, 5–0, to win the cup for New Zealand. Although team Young America’s cup candidate yacht USA-36 was defeated in defender trials by Stars & Stripes’ USA-34, the San Diego Yacht Club elected to defend the cup with USA-36 crewed by Stars & Stripes. The run-up to the 1995 Cup was notable for the televised sinking of oneAustralia during the fourth round robin of the Louis Vuitton challenger selection series, with all hands escaping uninjured. The 1995 defender selection series also had the first mostly female (with one man) crew sailing the yacht USA-43, nicknamed “Mighty Mary”.

On the 14th of March 1996, a man (Benjamin Peri Nathan; who was subsequently tried, convicted and jailed) entered the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron’s clubroom and damaged the America’s Cup with a sledgehammer. The damage was so severe that it was feared that the cup was irreparable. London’s Garrards silversmiths, who had manufactured the cup in 1848, painstakingly restored the trophy to its original condition over three months, free of charge. In 2003, an extra 20 cm was added to the cup’s base to accommodate the names of future winners.

At Auckland in 1999–2000, Team New Zealand, led by Sir Peter Blake, and again skippered by Russell Coutts, defeated the ItalianPrada Challenge from the Yacht Club Punta Ala. The Italians had previously beaten the AmericaOne syndicate from the St Francis Yacht Club in the Louis Vuitton Cup final. This was the first America’s Cup to be contested without an American challenger or defender.

America3‘s after successfully defending the America’s Cup in 1992

During the Twelve-Metre era, the New York Yacht Club, citing the Deed language that the Cup should be “perpetually a Challenge Cup for friendly competition between foreign countries”, had adopted several interpretive resolutions intended to strengthen nationality requirements. By 1980, these resolutions specified that besides being constructed in the country of the challenger or defender, a yacht had to be designed by and crewed by nationals of the country where the yacht club was located. Globalization made it increasingly impractical to enforce design nationality rules, and starting in 1984, the Royal Perth Yacht Club began relaxing this requirement. Numerous members of the New Zealand AC 2000 team became key members of the Swiss 2003 Alinghi challenge, led by biotechnology entrepreneur Ernesto Bertarelli. To satisfy the crew nationality requirements, New Zealand team members of Alinghi took up residence in Switzerland.

In 2003, several strong challengers vied for the right to sail for the cup in Auckland during the challenger selection series. Bertarelli’s team representing the Swiss yacht club, Société Nautique de Genève (SNG), beat all her rivals in the Louis Vuitton Cup and in turn won the America’s Cup 5–0. In doing so, Alinghi became the first European team in 152 years of the event’s history to win the Cup.

For the 2007 Cup, SNG rescinded all interpretive resolutions to the Deed, essentially leaving “constructed in country” as the only remaining nationality requirement. The 2007 defense of the cup was held in Valencia, Spain. This was the first time since the original 1851 Isle of Wight race that the America’s Cup regatta had been held in Europe, or in a country different from that of the defender (necessary because Switzerland, despite having huge lakes and a national passion for sailing, does not border a “sea or arm of the sea” as specified in the Deed). Eleven challenging yacht clubs from 9 countries submitted formal entries. The challenger selection series, the Louis Vuitton Cup 2007, ran from 16 April to 6 June 2007. Emirates Team New Zealand won the challenger series finale 5–0 against Italians Luna Rossa and met Alinghi between 23 June and 3 July 2007. Ernesto Bertarelli‘s Team- Alinghi successfully defended the America’s Cup 5–2, under the colors of SNG.

2010 The Golden Gate Challenge[edit]

Successful challenger USA-17, 2010

Main article: 2010 America’s Cup

After Société Nautique de Genève successfully defended the trophy in the 32nd America’s Cup, they accepted a challenge from Club Náutico Español de Vela (CNEV) a Spanish yacht club formed expressly for the purpose of challenging for the cup and keeping the regatta in Valencia. When SNG and CNEV published their protocol for the 33rd America’s Cup, there was criticism over its terms, with some teams and yacht clubs calling it the worst protocol in the history of the event.[34] Golden Gate Yacht Club (GGYC) then filed its own challenge for the Cup and also filed a court case asking that CNEV be removed as being unqualified under the Deed of Gift, and that GGYC be named the challenger, being the first club to file a conforming challenge.[35]

There followed a long and acrimonious legal battle,[36] with the New York Court of Appeals finally deciding on 2 April 2009 that CNEV did not qualify as valid challenger, and that the GGYC was thus the rightful challenger.[37]

Since the two parties were unable to agree otherwise, the match took place as a one-on-one Deed of Gift match[nb 1] with no other clubs or teams participating.

The match was sailed in gigantic, specialized 90 ft (27 m) multihull yachts in a best-of-three race series in Valencia, Spain from 8 to 14 February 2010. The rigid wing sail of the challenging trimaran USA-17 provided a decisive advantage, and it won the 2010 America’s Cup 2–0.[38][39][40][41]

2013 The AC72 rule[edit]

Main article: 2013 America’s Cup

Defender Oracle Team USA

The Challenger of Record for the 34th America’s Cup was Club Nautico di Roma, whose teamMascalzone Latino had competed in the challenger selection series for the 2007 America’s Cup.[42][43] In September, 2010, GGYC and Club Nautico di Roma announced the protocol for AC34, scheduling the match for 2013 in a new class of boat, the AC72, a wing-sailed catamaran. Paralleling the “Acts” of the 32nd America’s Cup—a series of preliminary events in different venues leading-up to the actual event—a new series, the America’s Cup World Series was to be run using AC45 class boats (smaller one-design versions of the AC72s), in various world venues in 2011 and 2012.[44][45]

On 12 May 2011, Club Nautico di Roma withdrew from the competition, citing challenges in raising sufficient funds to field a competitive team.[46][47] As the second yacht club to file a challenge, theRoyal Swedish Yacht Club assumed the duties of the challenger.[48]

Rumors of stable hydrofoiling of an AC72 were confirmed when Emirates Team New Zealand’s AC72 yacht Aotearoa was seen to be sailing on hydrofoils in August, 2012. This triggered a technology race in foil development and control.[49] The Royal New Zealand Yacht Club won the right to sail in the America’s Cup match easily beating the Italian and Swedish challengers in the Louis Vuitton Cup. The resulting match between the USA and NZ was the longest on record both in calendar time, and the number of races, with the Golden Gate Yacht Club staging an improbable come-from-behind victory, winning eight races in a row to defend the Cup with nine points to New Zealand’s eight.

35th America’s Cup (future event)[edit]

October 1, 2013 – Australia’s Hamilton Island Yacht Club[50] was confirmed as the “Challenger of Record” for the 35th America’s Cup.[51] Only moments after the win by USA team Oracle, Hamilton Island Yacht Club (HIYC), located on the edge of the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland, Australia issued its challenge for the 35th America’s Cup. The HIYC challenge has been accepted by the Golden Gate Yacht Club, which remains the Defender and Trustee of the world’s oldest international sporting trophy.[52] Australian billionaire Bob Oatley was said to be financially backing the Hamilton Island Yacht Club as the Challenger of Record for the 35th America’s Cup.[53]

GGYC and HIYC expect to have a Protocol Governing the 35th America’s Cup, including dates, venue, boats and other details, agreed and published in the first few months of 2014.

For three decades HIYC has run the “Hamilton Island Race Week“, which has become the largest annual regatta in Australia. HIYC is led by Australian winemaker and sailing legend Bob Oatley, whose series of yachts named Wild Oats have dominated ocean racing in Australia for years, including having won six of the last eight Sydney-Hobart races. An Australian team led by Mr. Oatley won the last Admiral’s Cup, widely regarded as the world’s top prize in ocean racing.

The challenge was filed by Mr. Oatley and his son, Sandy, on behalf of HIYC shortly after ORACLE TEAM USA won the thrilling deciding final race in the 34th America’s Cup against Emirates Team New Zealand on San Francisco Bay on September 25.

Ben Ainsle, ORACLE TEAM USA’s tactician at the 2013 America’s Cup, has expressed serious interest in challenging his current employers’ with his own team based out of the United Kingdom if sufficient funds can be found to support the effort.

Challengers and defenders[edit]

Challengers and defenders
Rule Year Venue Defending club Defender Challenging club Challenger Score
Fleet racing
1851 Isle of Wight United Kingdom Royal Yacht Squadron cutters and 7 schooners, runner-up Aurora United States New York Yacht Club John Cox Stevens syndicate,America 0–1
1870 New York City United States New York Yacht Club 17 schooners, winner Franklin Osgood’s Magic United Kingdom Royal Thames Yacht Club James Lloyd Ashbury,Cambria 1–0
1871 New York City United States New York Yacht Club Franklin Osgood, Columbia (2–1) and
William Proctor Douglas, Sappho(2–0)
United Kingdom Royal Harwich Yacht Club James Lloyd Ashbury,Livonia 4–1
1876 New York City United States New York Yacht Club John Stiles Dickerson,Madeleine Canada Royal Canadian Yacht Club Charles Gifford, Countess of Dufferin 2–0
65′ sloop
1881 New York City United States New York Yacht Club Joseph Richard Busk, Mischief Canada Bay of Quinte Yacht Club Alexander Cuthbert, Atalanta 2–0
NYYC 85′
1885 New York City United States New York Yacht Club John Malcolm Forbes syndicate,Puritan United Kingdom Royal Yacht Squadron Sir Richard Sutton, Genesta 2–0
1886 New York City United States New York Yacht Club Charles Jackson Paine,Mayflower United Kingdom Royal Northern Yacht Club Lt. & Mrs. William Henn,Galatea 2–0
1887 New York City United States New York Yacht Club Charles Jackson Paine,Volunteer United Kingdom Royal Clyde Yacht Club James Bell syndicate, Thistle 2–0
SCYC 85′
1893 New York City United States New York Yacht Club Charles Oliver Iselin syndicate,Vigilant United Kingdom Royal Yacht Squadron Earl of DunravenValkyrie II 3–0
SCYC 90′
1895 New York City United States New York Yacht Club William K. Vanderbilt syndicate,Defender United Kingdom Royal Yacht Squadron Earl of Dunraven syndicate,Valkyrie III 3–0
1899 New York City United States New York Yacht Club J. Pierpont Morgan syndicate,Columbia United Kingdom Royal Ulster Yacht Club Sir Thomas LiptonShamrock 3–0
1901 New York City United States New York Yacht Club J. Pierpont Morgan syndicate,Columbia United Kingdom Royal Ulster Yacht Club Sir Thomas LiptonShamrock II 3–0
1903 New York City United States New York Yacht Club Cornelius Vanderbilt III syndicate,Reliance United Kingdom Royal Ulster Yacht Club Sir Thomas LiptonShamrock III 3–0
1920 New York City United States New York Yacht Club Henry Walters syndicate,Resolute United Kingdom Royal Ulster Yacht Club Sir Thomas LiptonShamrock IV 3–2
1930 Newport United States New York Yacht Club Harold S. Vanderbilt syndicate,Enterprise United Kingdom Royal Ulster Yacht Club Sir Thomas LiptonShamrock V 4–0
1934 Newport United States New York Yacht Club Harold S. Vanderbilt syndicate,Rainbow United Kingdom Royal Yacht Squadron Sir Thomas Sopwith,Endeavour 4–2
1937 Newport United States New York Yacht Club Harold S. VanderbiltRanger United Kingdom Royal Yacht Squadron Sir Thomas Sopwith,Endeavour II 4–0
1958 Newport United States New York Yacht Club Henry SearsColumbia United Kingdom Royal Yacht Squadron Hugh Goodson syndicate,Sceptre 4–0
1962 Newport United States New York Yacht Club Mercer, Walsh, Frese syndicate,Weatherly Australia Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron Sir Frank PackerGretel 4–1
1964 Newport United States New York Yacht Club Eric Ridder syndicate,Constellation United Kingdom Royal Thames Yacht Club Anthony Boyden, Sovereign 4–0
1967 Newport United States New York Yacht Club William Justice Strawbridge syndicate, Intrepid Australia Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron Emile Christenson, Dame Pattie 4–0
1970 Newport United States New York Yacht Club William Justice Strawbridge syndicate, Intrepid Australia Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron Sir Frank PackerGretel II 4–1
1974 Newport United States New York Yacht Club Robert Willis McCullough syndicate, Courageous Australia Royal Perth Yacht Club Alan BondSouthern Cross 4–0
1977 Newport United States New York Yacht Club Ted TurnerCourageous Australia Sun City Yacht Club Alan BondAustralia 4–0
1980 Newport United States New York Yacht Club Freedom syndicate, Freedom Australia Royal Perth Yacht Club Alan BondAustralia 4–1
1983 Newport United States New York Yacht Club Freedom syndicate, Liberty Australia Royal Perth Yacht Club Alan BondAustralia II 3–4
1987 Fremantle Australia Royal Perth Yacht Club Kevin ParryKookaburra III United States San Diego Yacht Club Sail America, Stars & Stripes 87 0–4
1988 San Diego United States San Diego Yacht Club Sail America, Stars & Stripes 88 New Zealand Mercury Bay Boating Club Sir Michael FayKZ-1 2–0
1992 San Diego United States San Diego Yacht Club Bill KochAmerica3 Italy Compagnia Della Vela di Venezia Raul GardiniIl Moro di Venezia 4–1
1995 San Diego United States San Diego Yacht Club Sail America, Young America New Zealand Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron Team New ZealandNZL-32/Black Magic 0–5
2000 Auckland New Zealand Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron Team New ZealandNZL-60 Italy Yacht Club Punta Ala Prada ChallengeLuna Rossa 5–0
2003 Auckland New Zealand Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron Team New ZealandNZL 82 Switzerland Société Nautique de Genève AlinghiSUI-64 0–5
2007 Valencia Switzerland Société Nautique de Genève AlinghiSUI-100 New Zealand Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron Team New ZealandNZL-92 5–2
DOG match
2010 Valencia Switzerland Société Nautique de Genève AlinghiAlinghi 5 United States Golden Gate Yacht Club BMW Oracle RacingUSA-17 0–2
2013 San Francisco United States Golden Gate Yacht Club Oracle Team USAOracle Team USA 17 New Zealand Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron Emirates Team New Zealand,Aotearoa 9–8[nb 2]
TBD TBD San Francisco United States Golden Gate Yacht Club Australia Hamilton Island Yacht Club challenger of record

All-time finals records of Clubs that have won the Cup[edit]

United States New York Yacht Club: 25–1
United States San Diego Yacht Club: 3–1
New Zealand Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron: 2–3
Australia Royal Perth Yacht Club: 1–3
Switzerland Société Nautique de Genève: 2–1
United States Golden Gate Yacht Club: 2–0

In the media[edit]

In 1928 Goodyear chairman Paul W. Litchfield began a tradition of naming the company’s blimps after America’s Cup yachts, includingAmericaPuritanMayflowerVolunteerVigilantDefenderRelianceResoluteEnterpriseRainbowRangerColumbia and Stars & Stripes.[56]

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ The Deed of Gift language for this eventuality is: “In case the parties cannot mutually agree upon the terms of a match, then three races shall be sailed, and the winner of two of such races shall be entitled to the Cup. All such races shall be on ocean courses, free from headlands, as follows: The first race, twenty nautical miles (37 km) to windward and return; the second race an equilateral triangular race of thirty-nine nautical miles, the first side of which shall be a beat to windward; the third race (if necessary) twenty nautical miles (37 km) to windward and return; and one week day shall intervene between the conclusion of one race and the starting of the next race. These ocean courses shall be practicable in all parts for vessels of twenty-two feet draught of water, and shall be selected by the Club holding the Cup; and these races shall be sailed subject to its rules and sailing regulations so far as the same do not conflict with the provisions of this deed of gift, but without any times allowances whatever. The challenged Club shall not be required to name its representative vessel until at a time agreed upon for the start, but the vessel when named must compete in all the races, and each of such races must be completed within seven hours.” See also: Deed of Gift on Wikisource.
  2. Jump up^ Oracle Team USA, representing the Golden Gate Yacht Club, started the 2013 first-to-win-nine-races match with a two-race deficit due to a penalty applied for modifications to the team’s AC45-class yachts during the America’s Cup World Series (ACWS). The modifications were held to be an intentional violation of the AC45 one-design rules, and as the ACWS was deemed to be a part of the America’s Cup event, a penalty was assessed against Oracle Team USA in the America’s Cup Match.[54][55]


  1. Jump up^ “What is the oldest sporting trophy”. quezi.com. 23 February 2010. Retrieved 2012-01-01.[unreliable source?]
  2. Jump up^ John Rousmaniere (1983). The America’s Cup 1851–1983. Pelham Books. ISBN 978-0-7207-1503-3.
  3. Jump up^ “A Cup is a Cup, by any other name”. americascup.com. 5 December 2005. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  4. Jump up to:a b Thomas W. Lawson (1902). “List of Inscriptions on the America’s Cup”The Lawson History of the America’s Cup. Winfield M. Thompson Press. pp. 374–375. ISBN 978-0-907069-40-9. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  5. Jump up^ Alfred Fullerton Loomis (August 1958). “Ah, Your Majesty, there is no second”American Heritage 9 (5). Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  6. Jump up^ Jacques Taglang. “Sappho”. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  7. Jump up^ Jacques Taglang. “Magic”. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  8. Jump up^ “The Queen’s Cup race” (pdf). The New York Times. 9 August 1870.
  9. Jump up^ Hamish G. Ross. “The First Challenge”. alinghi.com.[dead link]
  10. Jump up^ Naval Marine Archive. “Atalanta: The Canadian Mud Turtle”. Naval Marine Archive. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
  11. Jump up^ “Yachting – The plank on edge”Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. Retrieved 2012-05-04.[unreliable source?]
  12. Jump up^ William Picard Stephens (1904). “Burgess and the America Cup”American Yachting. The Macmillan Company. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  13. Jump up^ Roland Folger Coffin (1885). The America’s Cup: How it was Won by the Yacht America in 1851 and Has Been Since Defended. Charles Scribner’s Sons Press. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  14. Jump up^ A Testimonial to Charles J. Paine and Edward Burgess, from the City of Boston, for their successful defense of the America’s Cup. Rockwell and Churchill Press. 1887. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  15. Jump up^ Ahmed John Kenealy (November 1893). “The Victory of the Vigilant” (pdf). Outing (la84foundation.org) 23: 161–174. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  16. Jump up^ “Valkyrie’s steel mast” (pdf). The New York Times. 6 August 1895. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  17. Jump up^ “The Curtain falls on Dunraven” (pdf). Outing(la84foundation.org) 28: 1–2. April 1896. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  18. Jump up^ “Henry “Hank” Coleman Haff, 2004 Inductee”America’s Cup hall of Fame. Herreshoff Marine Museum. Retrieved 2012-09-18.
  19. Jump up^ “skipper success of the Fife cutter MinervaNew York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-23.[clarification needed]
  20. Jump up^ “Barr’s success on the Fife cutter MinervaNew York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-23.[clarification needed]
  21. Jump up^ Christopher Pastore (2005). Temple to the Wind: The Story of America’s Greatest Naval Architect and His Masterpiece, Reliance. Lyons Press. ISBN 978-1-59228-557-0.
  22. Jump up^ Joseph Brinker (July 1920). “Racing for the America’s Cup – When sport becomes a science”Popular Science 97 (1): 17–22. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  23. Jump up^ Herbert Lawrence Stone (1919). The America’s Cup Races.Thomas Werner Laurie, Ltd. Press. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  24. Jump up^ Shamrock IVNew York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-23.[clarification needed]
  25. Jump up^ John T. Brady (July 1930). “A $5,000,000 yacht race”.Popular Mechanics: 970–974. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  26. Jump up^ Harold Stirling Vanderbilt (1931). Enterprise – The Story of the Defense of the America’s Cup in 1930. Charles Scribner’s Sons Press. ISBN 978-0-7136-6905-3.
  27. Jump up^ Starling Burgess (July 1934). “Secrets of a racing yacht”.Popular Mechanics 62 (1): 3–5. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  28. Jump up^ “America’s Cup winner a marvel in design”Popular Mechanics: 486–487. October 1937. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  29. Jump up^ Ian Dear (1977). Enterprise to Endeavour – the J-Class yachtsDodd, Mead and CompanyISBN 978-0-396-07478-6.
  30. Jump up^ “America’s Cup Hall of Fame > Inductees > Henry Sears, 1995 Inductee”. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  31. Jump up^ Conner, Dennis; Stannard, Bruce (1987). Comeback: My Race for the America’s Cup. New York: St. Martin’s Press. pp. 100–101. ISBN 0-312-00900-3.
  32. Jump up^ Staff and Wire Reporters (11 December 1987). “Bond Urges Defenders to Open 1988 Challenge to All Comers”Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  33. Jump up^ “Mercury Bay Boating Club v San Diego Yacht Club, Opinion of the Court”. State of New York Unified Court System. 26 April 1990. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  34. Jump up^ Gladwell, Richard (October 8, 2007). “America’s Cup document says RNZYS against Protocol”. Sail-World NZL. Retrieved April 16, 2009.
  35. Jump up^ “GGYC Complaint Against SNG” (pdf).[dead link]
  36. Jump up^ “Scuttlebutt News: Cory E. Friedman – 33rd America’s Cup”. Sailingscuttlebutt.com. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
  37. Jump up^ Golden Gate Yacht Club v. Societe Nautique De Geneve(New York Court of Appeals 2 April 2009). Text
  38. Jump up^ “First blood to USA – News – 33rd America’s Cup”. Americascup.com. 25 June 2007. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
  39. Jump up^ “BMW ORACLE Racing”. BMW ORACLE Racing. 30 September 2003. Retrieved 2010-02-15.[dead link]
  40. Jump up^ “USA win 33rd America’s Cup Match – News – 33rd America’s Cup”. Americascup.com. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
  41. Jump up^ “BMW ORACLE Racing”. BMW ORACLE Racing. 30 September 2003. Retrieved 2010-02-15.[dead link]
  42. Jump up^ Laven, Kate (14 February 2010). “BMW Oracle’s Larry Ellison confirms Mascalzone Latino as Challenger of Record”The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2010-02-15.
  43. Jump up^ “Club Nautico di Roma confirmed as America’s Cup challenger”3 News. 16 February 2010. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  44. Jump up^ “Wingsailed 72ft catamaran to transform America’s Cup racing”Golden Gate Yacht Club. 15 October 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-10-19.
  45. Jump up^ “San Francisco Wins Right to Host 34th America’s Cup”.America’s Cup. 31 December 2010.
  46. Jump up^ “Mascalzone Latino says goodbye to the 34° America’s Cup”. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-12.
  47. Jump up^ “America’s Cup: Challenger of Record pulls pin in unprecedented move”. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-12.
  48. Jump up^ “Swedish yacht club becomes Challenger of Record”New Zealand Herald. 18 May 2011.[dead link]
  49. Jump up^ Gladwell, Richard (3 September 2012). “America’s Cup: Emirates Team NZ foiling on Waitemata Harbour – Images”.Sail-World.
  50. Jump up^ http://www.hamiltonisland.com.au/yacht-club/
  51. Jump up^ http://oracle-team-usa.americascup.com/news/5463/australias-hamilton-island-yacht-club-confirmed-as-challenger-of-record
  52. Jump up^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aXi4Hc4cLlg%7C Press conference
  53. Jump up^ John Stensholt (30 September 2013). “Bob Oatley funds Hamilton Island-based bid for America’s Cup”. BRW. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  54. Jump up^ “America’s Cup champion Oracle docked 2 points”. Yahoo Sports. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  55. Jump up^ “Team Oracle USA penalized as cheating scandal rocks Americas cup”. The Australian. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  56. Jump up^ “Goodyear Announces Winner of Nationwide Contest to Name Newest Blimp”. PR Newswire Association LLC. 21 June 2006. Retrieved 2011-06-17.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to America’s Cup.
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America’s Cup
America’s Cup
Challenger Selection Series
(Louis Vuitton Cup)
Defender Selection Series
(Citizen Cup)

South Atlantic Race: Formerly the Cape to Rio Yacht Race


South Atlantic Race

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The South Atlantic Race (formerly the Cape-to-Rio) is a yacht race from Cape Town to various destinations in South America. This has been primarily Rio de JaneiroBrazil, although Punta del EsteUruguay, and Salvador, Brazil, have all been chosen.


The total length of the race is around 3 600 miles across the Atlantic Ocean. After leaving Cape Town, participants head north-west towards the island of Ilha Trindade, and south-west from there towards South America. As they near the coast, skippers need to decide whether to take the longer route with stronger winds, or a more direct route with the chance for lighter winds.

Prizes are awarded to the first competitor across the line, new records being set, as well as the first three across the line in 3 handicap classes.


The first race was inspired by Bruce Dalling‘s victory in the 1968 Single-Handed Trans-Atlantic Race, and was held in 1971 to Rio de Janeiro.[1]

The 11th race was held to Salvador in 2006. The 2009 race was held to Bahia.


  1. Jump up^ Morgan, Brad (9 July 2008). “Sailing legend Dalling passes away”Sport. for Brand South Africa by Big Media Publishers. Retrieved 2009-07-23.

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Round Britain and Ireland double handed Yacht Race


Round Britain and Ireland double handed Yacht Race

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Round Britain and Ireland double handed Yacht Race was established in 1966 and is held every four years starting and finishing in PlymouthEngland. There are four compulsory stops of forty-eight hours at Kinsale, Barra, Lerwick and Lowestoft.[1]

Following the success of the first two OSTARsHerbert Hasler proposed to the Royal Western Yacht Club that there should be a two-handed race around the British Isles. The proposal was considered and the first Round Britain and Ireland race was held in 1966. The course, of about 2,000 miles (3,200 km), was split into five legs separated by compulsory stop-overs of 48 hours each at Crosshaven in Ireland, Castle Bay, Barra in the Outer Hebrides, Lerwick in Shetland, and Harwich on the East Coast. It would circumnavigate Britain and Ireland and, with the exception of the Channel Islands and Rockall, all islands and rocks would be left to starboard.

The first race was a great success and the RB&I was established on a four year cycle (two years off the OSTAR cycle). Lowestoft replaced Harwich as the east coast port from the second race on. Thereafter the course remained the same until Kinsale replaced Crosshaven in 2006.

The RB&I grew rapidly to a multinational entry of many boat sizes and types. In 1982 the 85 starters included an 80 ft monohull, a 70 ft catamaran, several 60 and 65 ft trimarans, down to a 25 ft monohull, and represented over a dozen nationalities.

The following race was held in 1985, since 1986 was given over to the second TwoSTAR so it could run two years apart from the OSTAR. The four year cycle continued with races in 1989 and 1993, but reverted (following the last TwoSTAR in 1994) to its original schedule in 1998 and on to the latest race in 2010.[2]


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